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1. Ghi nhận lịch sử – phụng vụ

Lễ Đức Mẹ sầu bi xuất hiện trong thế kỷ XII, nhưng đã thấy có dấu vết từ cuối thế kỷ XI trong các bài viết của thánh Ansèlme và nhiều tu sỹ Biển Đức hoặc Cisterciens . Lễ được quảng bá ban đầu bởi các tu sỹ Cisterciens, về sau do các tu sỹ Servites, và phổ biến vào thế kỷ XIV và XV. Tại Cologne, lễ được cử hành lần đầu tiên năm 1423, ngày thứ sáu sau chủ nhật thứ ba Phục sinh, theo một sắc lệnh của công đồng tỉnh Mayence, thiết lập lễ Đức Mẹ sầu bi để đền tạ những xúc phạm do những người theo phe Jean Hus gây ra đối với các ảnh tượng Mẹ. Năm 1482, lễ được đưa vào sách lễ với tước hiệu Đức Bà trắc ẩn, nhưng mãi đến năm 1728, Đức Giáo Hoàng Bênêđíctô XII mới đưa vào lịch phụng vụ Roma. Bấy giờ định vào ngày thứ sáu trước Lễ Lá. Bị bãi bỏ, lễ đã được giữ lại chung với lễ Kính Bảy sự Thương Khó Đức Bà, do các tu sỹ Servites đã đưa trước, năm 1668, vào ngày chủ nhật sau 14 tháng chín; lễ được cho vào niên lịch, năm 1814, sau đó được Đức Giáo Hoàng Piô X năm 1913 định vào 15 tháng chín.

Lễ Đức Mẹ sầu bi cử hành ngay sau lễ kính Thánh giá cho thấy ý nghĩa hiển nhiên của nó. Các bức tượng Pietà, đặc trứng của nghệ thuật Gotique sau này và thời phục hưng, cũng như một số ca vãn như Stabat Mater hoặc Les lamentations de Marie, chỉ nói lên những đau khổ của Đức Mẹ dưới chân Thánh giá Chúa. Sau đó người ta bắt đầu chiêm niệm các khổ đau khác, từ thế kỷ XIV đã xác định là bảy: lưỡi gươm của Siméon, trốn sang Ai cập, gặp lại Con nơi Đền thờ, trên đường Canvê, đóng đinh, hạ xác, táng trong mộ. Ngày nay lễ kính các đau khổ của Đức Maria, nói cách chung, không có thêm lễ nhớ các Nỗi đớn đau của Đức Mẹ trong thời gian mùa Thương khó nữa.

2. Thông điệp và tính thời sự

Các kinh nguyện trong thánh lễ đã được đổi mới: tất cả xoay quanh các đau khổ của Đức Maria mà lời tiên báo Siméon là tượng trưng (điệp ca mở đầu và bài đọc Lc 2,33 – 35). Giáo hội, như Đức Maria, cũng được kêu gọi dự phần vào Cuộc Thương Khó và niềm Quang Vinh của Chúa (điệp ca rước lễ theo 1 Pr 4,13). Câu xướng trong Phụng vụ giờ kinh nhấn mạnh khía cạnh Kitô học của lễ Kính hôm nay: “Cùng với Đức Maria dưới chân thánh giá, chúng ta hãy thờ lạy Đấng cứu chuộc trần gian”.

Lời nguyện trong ngày nhắc lại nền tảng căn bản của việc kính nhớ các sự thương khó Đức Mẹ: “Lạy Chúa, Chúa đã muốn Mẹ Con Chúa đúng gần thánh giá, thông phần vào các đau đớn của Người, xin Chúa cũng ban cho Giáo hội kết hiệp với sự thương khó của Đức Kitô để được dự phần vào cuộc phục sinh của Người” Chắc chắn, sự tham dự của Đức Trinh nữ Maria được đặt song song với sự tham dự của Hội thánh vào sự Thương khó Chúa (Điệp ca rước lễ và điệp ca thứ hai Kinh sáng); tuy nhiên , như công đồng Vatican II tuyên bố, cần nhận thức rằng Đức Maria được dự phần vào Đấng Cưú Chuộc “với một tước hiệu duy nhất tuyệt đối”  và Mẹ đã mang lại cho công cuộc của Đấng Cứu Thế một sự công tác tuyệt đối không ai sánh bằng (G.H. 61).

Lời nguyện trên lễ vật ( mang âm vang của đoạn Ga 19, 25-27): Đây là con bà … Đây là mẹ con), nhấn mạnh tính chất làm Mẹ phổ quát của Đức Maria: “… Chúa đã muốn Người làm mẹ chúng con khi đứng kề thánh giá Chúa Giêsu; (cũng xem Điệp ca Magnificat). Chính dưới chân thánh giá, chức làm mẹ của Đức Maria lan rộng tới mọi thành viên Giáo hội, vì Giáo hội được sinh ra từ cạnh sườn bị đâm thâu của con Mẹ.

Lời nguyện tạ lễ cầu xin Chúa, để khi cử hành “nổi đau thương của Đức Maria”, chúng ta cũng có thể “hoàn tất nơi chúng ta, vì Giáo hội, những gì còn phải chịu đựng trong các thử thách của Đức Ki-tô”. Bản văn lời cầu nguyện rõ ràng xuất phát từ Col 1,24. Vậy nếu chúng ta chấp nhận tham dự vào các thương đau của Đức Kitô cũng như Đức Maria, chúng ta sẽ được dự phần vào phục sinh của Chúa (xem lời nguyện trong ngày).

Bài giảng thánh Bênađô (Phụng vụ bài đọc) ca tụng sự đồng cảm lớn lao của đức Trinh nữ Maria: “Trong sự thương khó của Đức Kitô, thực sự đã hoàn tất một tình bác ái lớn lao chưa ai từng thấy, và trong sự đồng cảm của Đức Maria thực sự đã hoàn tất một tình bác ái lớn lao không đâu bằng, ngoại trừ tình bác ái của Đức Kitô”. Các thánh thi phụng vụ Giờ kinh là âm vang bài Ca tiếp liên được gán cho Facopone da Todi (1230 – 1306), bài Stabat Mater. Ca vãn sáng tác bằng thứ la-tinh bình dân này đã gợi hứng cho nhiều sáng tác âm nhạc (Josquin des Prés, Palestrina, Pergolese, Rossini…). Nó nhắc lại tập quán đạo đức thời trung cổ trong đó bài Lamentations de Marie rất được dân chúng ưa thích.

Đức Maria có khả năng tham dự hoàn toàn vào những khổ đau của Chúa Giêsu, bởi vì, ngay từ đầu Mẹ đã dâng mình cho Chúa với tâm tình sẵn sàng trọn vẹn. Sự đồng cảm của Mẹ đã được nhắc tới từ nhiều thế kỷ, bởi nhiều nghệ sỹ, hoặc đứng dưới chân thánh giá, hoặc ngồi ẵm xác con trên gối (Pietà, nói là của R.Van Der Weyden, Bruxelles, Pietà, nói là của Villeneuve-Lès-Aviguon, Louvre; Pietà của Michel-Ange trong Đền thờ thánh Phêrô ở Roma …)

Enzo Lodi

Bài mới

Chủ đề Sống tháng 03 và 04.2024 : Tính cách và nhân đức của nữ tu tông đồ Mân Côi

Là con người, chị nữ tu Mân Côi không thể tránh khỏi những yếu đuối …

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